Propaganda Techniques:

  1. Glittering Generalities

  2. Transfer

  3. Name Calling

  4. Card-Stacking

  5. Testimonial

  6. Plain Folk

  7. Bandwagon

Glittering Generalities

This graph ignores data about other funding sources. If anything, it shows how funding has shifted from local to federal sources.

It also presumes the purpose of the increase in
federal spending was to raise NAEP Reading Scores.

Source: The Heritage Foundation
Glittering Generalities

Graph measures % change, not actual revenue making this graph misleading and
leading viewers to accepting "glittering generalities."

Source: Oklahoma Council on Public Affairs

To the average taxpayer the use of the phrase "not making adequate annual yearly progress" will read the same as "inadequate" therefore transferring the
idea of "inadequate" to over 47% of our schools.

Source: Pioneer Press

There are multiple problems with this graph, not just the transfer that happens with "Individual Impact."

Promethian's ActivClassroom graph doesn't define what the percentage points measure.

In addition to using "transfer" they also make use of misleading or problematic data visualization to sell their product.

external image SchoolofOne4.jpg
Name Calling

It would be hard for this student not to feel this chart wasn't a subtle form of "name calling."

Source: School of One
Name Calling

How can this student not feel like this graph is a form of "name calling?"

Source: Minnesota Department of Education
Screen shot 2012-11-20 at 12.08.04 PM.png
Card Stacking

There is too much relevant information left out of this graph for it not to be a form of "card stacking."

This chart also "card stacks" by making the differences in the numbers seem much larger than they really are.

Source: Joel Rose Keynote, TIES Conference 2011
Card Stacking

This graph "card stacks" by not taking into account inflation as a factor.

Source: The Heritage Foundation
external image Michelle-Rhee-poll.jpg
Testimonial & Plain Folk

In this example framing of the question is key. The "Do not go far enough" response is worded in a way to give respondents an easy out but the label on the pie chart doesn't reflect the nuance included in the question.

external image Dell-EDU-Infographic.jpeg
Testimonial, Plain Folk, & Bandwagon

Conveniently, this infographic only reports poll data that supports DELL's objectives. Important data that is inconvenient is printed in small print only.

This is also a good example of the "bandwagon" technique.

Source: DELL
Screen Shot 2012-09-21 at 12.47.31 PM.png

Source: iPad in Schools

Source: iPad in Schools

Source: Gates Foundation